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My articles on Projective Geometry
, Swimming Pool, Chemical Weapons and Distribution and Probability of Non-Equilibrium Systems.


1. Methods of constructing perspective polygons (2nd Rev. April 12, 2006)
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2. The theory of colors of water in the swimming pool
(April 17, 2006)
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3. The property of similar conics in projective geometry
(May 8, 2006)
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4. Procedure of producing Methylphosphoryldifluoride, Precursor of Nerve Agents : Sarin and Somans (October 22, 2006)
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5. Procedure of producing Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide, distilled 96%, Sulphur Mustards (October 22, 2006)
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6. BRAHMACITTA: Principle and Practice to get BRAHMA's MIND for Laypersons (July 1, 2007)
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Link To My MYSPACE

Methods of constructing perspective polygons
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad

Abstract : A new property of conics is demonstrated and the methods of constructing perspective polygons are revealed by means of joining the intersections between conics and the pencils from a common point which is the intersection of the symmetric line and the line passing through the coincided axes of two identical and symmetrical conics regardless of the number and direction of pencils from that point. Dual of this new property of conics is also demonstrated. Theorems can be proved by CAD or MathLab. Deductive and analytical proofs are still unsolved.

Theorem 1
To demonstrate that the intersections of cords obtaining from intersections of the same couple of pencils from the intersection of the symmetry line and the line passing through the coincided axes of two identical and symmetrical conics will be perspective from the symmetry line regardless of the number and direction of pencils from that point.



Figure 1 shows two identical conics O and O’. Line y passes through the coincided axes of the two conics and intersects with the line of symmetry of those conics at point A. Arbitrary pencils from point A intersect with those conics at various points, i.e.; points P,Q,R,S,T on the conic O and points P’,Q’,R’,S’,T’ on the conic O’. The intersections B = PQ*P’Q’, C = QR*Q’R’, D = RS*R’S’, E = ST*S’T’, F = TP*T’P’ are colinear with the point A and are all on the line of symmetry of the two conics (line x).

Alternative of theorem 1: Alternative of theorem 1 can be stated as follows:
The points of intersections of the corresponding sides of two polygons, each one inscribed in one of the identical and symmetrical conics, obtaining from the lines joining the intersections of pencils from a common point, which is the intersection of the line of symmetry and the line passing through the coincided axes of the two conics, and the conics lie on a straight line which is the line of symmetry.




Figure 2 shows two perspective polygons PQRSTUVWXYZ and P’Q’R’S’T’U’V’W’X’Y’Z’
inscribed in two identical and symmetrical conics of which their axis are coincide. The intersections B = PQ*P’Q’, C = QR*Q’R’, D = RS*R’S’, E = ST*S’T’, G = UV*U’V’, H = VW*V’W’, I = WX*W’X’, J = XY*X’Y’ and so on lie on the line of symmetry (line x) regardless of the number and direction of pencils from A which is the intersection of line x and line y.


Theorem 2 (Dual of theorem 1)
To demonstrate that the intersections of tangents at the intersections of the same couple of pencils from the common point of intersection of the symmetrical line and the line passing through the coincide axes of two identical and symmetrical conics will be perspective from that point regardless of the number and direction of pencils.

Alternative of theorem 2 : Alternative of theorem 2 can be stated as follows:
The lines joining each pair of the corresponding vertexes of two polygons, each one circumscribed about one of the identical and symmetrical conics of which their axis are coincide, obtaining from the tangents at the intersections of pencils from a common point, which is the intersection of the line of symmetry and the line passing through the axis of the two conics, and the conics, pass through a point.

Figure 3 shows two polygons MNPQRSTV and M’N’P’Q’R’S’T’V’, obtaining from intersections of tangents at points M,N,P,Q,R,S,T, and V for the conic O, and points M’,N’,P’,Q’,R’,S’,T’ and V’ for the conic O’, circumscribed about the two identical and symmetrical conics ,O and O’, of which their axis are coincide, which are perspective from point A which is the common point of pencils obtaining from intersection of line x and line y regardless of the number and direction of pencils from A.

Conclusions
Since we are free to draw any number of pencils from A in any direction as desired, therefore it is obvious that these theorems reveal the methods of constructing perspective polygons.
For example, to construct a perspective polygon of an existing polygon inscribed in a conic, just draw another identical and symmetrical conic and draw the line passing through the coincided axes of the two conics and the line passing through the intersection of the conics to get an intersection point. From this point draw pencils of the lines passing through each and every vertex of the original polygon. Then join the intersections of each pencil and the other conics and you get the perspective polygon of the original polygon on the other conic.
A CAD software can easily prove these two theorems and facilitate constructing of the perspective polygons governed by these theorems. Mathematicians are encouraged to prove those theorems by deductive and analytical methods.

References: 1. IMAGINATION
2. Frank Ayres,Jr., Theory and Problems of PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY, Schaum’s Outline
Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1967.

The theory of colors of water in the swimming pool
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad
(Written on April 17, 2006)

1. Introduction: The color of water in the swimming pool varies from sky blue to green due to varying of refractive index with the contents of soluble calcium ion in the water. The more the soluble calcium is in the water, the more the tendency of water to be blue color. In the spectrum of light (figure 1) the green color is adjacent to blue color. Since water is losing calcium ion gradually by carbon dioxide from the air dissolved into the water, thus, the color of water will be gradually changed from sky blue to green when the water is exposed to the air or before and after the rain when the atmospheric pressure was increased, making more carbon dioxide dissolved into the water. The pH and alkalinity of water drops down and the water becomes more opaque due to calcium bicarbonate salt suspended in the water. When the water which turns green was left untreated for about two weeks its color will be changed to cloudy pale green because of calcium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate salts suspended in the water which is misunderstood as algae.


Violet: Indigo: Blue: Green:Yellow:Orange: Red

Figure 1. In the spectrum of light, blue and green are adjacent. The color of water in the swimming pool will gradually change from blue to green when the soluble calcium ion in the water drops down because of carbon dioxide in the air dissolved into the water.


Another cause of changing of color of water in the swimming pool from sky blue to green relates to the iron ions and rust in the make up water. Iron ions and rust in the make up water have yellow color by nature. Thus, when the make up water containing iron ions or rust is added into the swimming pool water to replace overflow and evaporation, the sky blue color of water in the swimming pool will be changed to green (Figure 2).


Figure 2. Sky blue water when contaminated with Yellow iron ions or rust gets Green water.


Iron ions in the make up water have two forms. The first is ferrous ion (Fe+2) which is colorless and the second is ferric ion (Fe+3) which is yellow color. The ferrous ion when contacted with oxygen or residual chlorine in the swimming pool water becomes ferric ion. Thus, even with colorless make up water, the color of swimming pool water may be eventually turns green because of ferrous ion in the make up water will gradually becomes ferric ion when contact with oxygen and residual chlorine. Ferrous ion comes mainly from deep well water which is usually mixed with tap water during dry seasons when the supply of surface water is short, while ferric ion comes mainly from surface water or rust in the pipe lines, pumps or storage tanks. The concentration of iron ions in the water which makes the sky blue color of water turned green is very small, i.e., in the parts per billion (ppb) order of magnitude which is out of the range of common test kits. However, we can check if the tap water contains iron ions or rust or not by investigating the white color bathtub filled with tap water or concrete storage tank laid with white color tiles and the inside of storage tank of the toilet. If the color of water in the bathtub or storage tank is pale green then the tap water surely contains iron ions or rust. If it is sky blue then the tap water has no iron ions at that investigation period. The storage tank of toilet is too small to observer the color of water inside it. But it keeps the history of tap water over a long period. So, if the color of the wetted part inside the storage tank is brown with soil on the surface then the tap water surely contains iron ions or rust over a long period. Meaning, although there are no iron ions or rust in the tap water during investigation period, they existed in other periods of the year.

Although very small amount of ferric salts in the water may not cause the color of water to turn green as seen from the side of the pool explicitly, it makes a big difference to some divers. Some divers noticed that water in some swimming pool is so clear that when they dived on one side of the pool and looked through the water to the far side of the pool they could see the tiles on that far side clearly while in other swimming pools they could not. As a matter of fact, most of the above mentioned calcium salts and ferric salts once occurred cannot be filtered out by sand filters or diatomaceous earth filters used in the swimming pools. In section 3, we will talk about how to make such “super-clear” water for swimming pool.


2. Method of Treatment
Tap water filled into an empty swimming pool also needs treatment because the color of water will be pale green or cloudy pale blue and unclear. The same method of treatment is used to adjust the existing ordinary swimming pool water which is not blue, or green and unclear to become blue crystal clear.

2.1) Preparation of chemicals, test kits, tools and equipment
(For about 600 cubic meters swimming pool or 12.5 x 25 m2 x 2 m depth)
(1) Chemicals :
- 100 kg. of calcium hydroxide powder or lime (used in construction)
- 60 kg. of 33 % hydrochloric acid (conc.)
- 500 ml. of concentrated ammonia water as first aid in case of breathing
hydrochloric acid fume.
(2) Test kits :
- Ordinary swimming pool test kits for pH and chlorine (only pH is used)
(3) Tools :
- 2 units of 20 liters plastic bins
- Acid protection mask with goggle inclusive
- Plastic gloves
- Vacuum head roller, long stick and flexible tube ordinarily used in cleaning the
floor of swimming pool
(4) Equipment :
- Fill in make-up water until the pool is full and stop
- Backwash the filters
- Stop pumps
- Manipulate valves in such a way that no water is drained away from the pool
- Check underwater lamps. Turn them on in case of working at night.

Procedure of Treatment
Blend 5 kg. of lime powder with 10 liters of tap water in a 20 liters bin. Stir it with hand which wears plastic glove.
Pour the milky slurry part of liquid from the bin into the swimming pool, leaving the solid part precipitated at the bottom of the bin. Throw the precipitate away in another empty bin. The slurry should be poured throughout the pool evenly not at one spot.
Repeat step 2 until 50 kilograms of lime powder is used. Wait for 15 minutes.
Check pH of water. If the pH is lower than 10.5 then repeat step 2 again and again and check pH from time to time. When the pH is over 10.5 stop.
Turn off the underwater lamps and let the water still for at least 6 hours.
Return and put on the acid protection mask. Pour 20 kg. of 33% hydrochloric acid gradually into the pool evenly around the pool, not at one spot. Leaving for 10 minutes, no need to stir.
Check pH of water. The pH of water will drop down. If the pH is over to 8.5, then pour 10 kg. of 33% hydrochloric acid into the pool gradually, wait 5 minutes. The hydrochloric acid should be poured throughout the pool evenly not at one spot.
Repeat step 7 until the pH of water is 8.5 then stop. It is crucial not to bring the pH down below 8.5 or else the procedure must be repeated.
Manipulate valves in such a way that the wastewater from the vacuum head roller will be drained away without passing through the filters. Start pump(s).
Clean the floor of the pool with vacuum until finish.
Manipulate valves in such a way that the make up water is filled in while the
pumps are running to circulate water through the filters.
After a few rounds of circulation time (1 round of circulation time = volume of water in the pool / pumping capacity), the water will be blue crystal clear.

Notes: a) Handle 33% hydrochloric acid with extreme care. Do not stand down stream
to the wind with respect to the 33% hydrochloric acid or breath hydrochloric
acid fume. In case of breathing a lot of hydrochloric acid fume, use cotton
wool or cloth moistened with ammonia water to inhale slowly.
Theoretically 98% sulphuric acid should not be used in place of 33%
hydrochloric acid because 98% sulphuric acid has high density. Once pour
into the pool it will sink down to the bottom of the pool and will destroy the
pool floor. Besides, the calcium sulphate salt resulting from the reactions with
lime does not dissolve in water in that salinity range. Thus, theoretically, in
fresh water sulphuric acid could not make the color of water blue but cloudy.
The pool is already in service at pH of 8.5 which is the highest value of pH
allowed. We may add chlorine to the water at this moment. The pH of water
will drop down gradually when there is make up water entering into the pool
or carbon dioxide in the air is dissolved into the water. In case that pH
between 7.2 to 7.8 range is strictly applied to that pool, simply pour 5 kg of
33% hydrochloric acid into the pool (when there is no one in the pool) and
around the pool and check pH. Repeat this step carefully using 2-3 kg of 33%
hydrochloric acid until the pH of water is 7.8 and stop. You can notice that the
color of water is not as blue as at pH of 8.5
In some countries where copper sulphate (crystal) is allowed to be used in the
swimming pools to protect algae due to high pH of water in the pool, it is
recommended that 1 gram per cubic meter of copper sulphate is used and not
more than 2 grams per cubic meter. Using copper sulphate will make the color of water be more blue. Do not use copper sulphate to adjust the color of water in the swimming pool. Copper of more than 2 gram per cubic meter is reported to be dangerous to our health.

3. Making Super-Clear Water for Swimming Pool
3.1) Criteria
(1) For swimming pool with sand filters
- Remove iron ions, iron salts and rust from the swimming pool water.
(2) For swimming pool with diatomaceous filters
- Remove iron ions from the make up water.
3.2) Method : For swimming pool with sand filters
(1) Replace half of sand media in the sand filters by “Green Sand”. Green sand is used in water treatment for removal of ferrous ion from the water. Green sand mentioned here has dark violet to black color. It is as fine as sand but not as round. Green sand which has pale brown color should not be used. But if necessary, wash it well before use because it is full of dust and silt. Backwash the filters well after replacing half of each sand filter with green sand. Use the filters as usual.
Each and every day pour 1 - 2 grams of potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
into the swimming pool (when there is no one in the pool) 6 -12 hours before daily backwashing of the filters. The color of water will be pale violet because of the color of potassium permanganate and will turn to blue crystal clear again when the water has been filtered. The purpose of potassium permanganate is to regenerate the green sand inside the filters.
3.3) Method : For swimming pool with diatomaceous earth filters
Install a green sand filter or iron removal filter to the make up water supply line. Regeneration of green sand is done by means of dosing pump which injects potassium permanganate solution directly into the filter.

Remarks: 1) If a lot of potassium permanganate is dumped into the swimming pool water by accident making the color of water violet, to remedy, then pour sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) powder about 5 times as much as potassium permanganate into the swimming pool while the circulating pumps are on. Wait until the color of water turns pale yellow. Then, start the procedure in section 2 above and the water will become blue crystal clear.
2) Swimming pools which employ sand filters should used the method in item 3.3 too.

4. Sea Water Swimming Pool
The same procedure in section 2 can also be used but the quantity of calcium hydroxide or lime needed is much higher depending on total hardness of the sea water. For sea water of total hardness about 6,000 mg/l, the quantity of lime required would be about 3,000 kg for the sea water swimming pool of the size in section 2. This procedure is inevitably needed for initial treatment of all sea water pools, or otherwise precipitation will occur slowly and continuously making the water unclear and the pool floor and side walls become dirty repeatedly after cleaning because of carbon dioxide in the air reacts with minerals in the sea water forming precipitating salts which is misunderstood as microorganisms or planktons needed to be killed by disinfectants.
The Property of Similar Conics in Projective Geometry
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad

Abstract : Similar conics are the conics of which their axis are parallel and their size and shape are proportional. Three similar conics intersect at six distinct points are demonstrated to have three lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics intersect at one point. A theorem is formed from this property of similar conics. Dual of this theorem is also true for each of the three similar conics. Theorems are demonstrated and proved by CAD software. Proofs by deductive and analytical methods are still unsolved.


Definition of Similar Conics:
Similar conics are the conics of which their axis are parallel and their size and shape are proportional.

Figure 1 and 2 are examples of three similar conics obtaining from scaling up or scaling down of an original conic while keeping their axis parallel. Both figures also show that the lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics meet at one point, O. Thus, theorem 1 is formed.

Theorem 1
Three similar conics intersect at six distinct points having three lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics intersect at one point.


Duality of theorem 1 are demonstrated in figure 3, 4, 5 for the group of three similar conics so aligned in such a way that the intersection point O is within the group, and in figure 6 and 7 for the group of three similar conics so aligned in such a way that the intersection point O is outside the group.


Thus, theorem 2 is formed as follows:

Theorem 2 (Dual of theorem 1)
The six tangent lines to each conic of the group of three similar conics at the intersections of each couple of conics intersect at three distinct points which are collinear.

A CAD software can easily prove these two theorems and facilitate constructing of the similar conics by means of scale up and down command. Mathematicians are encouraged to prove those theorems by deductive and analytical methods.

References: 1. IMAGINATION
2. Frank Ayres,Jr., Theory and Problems of PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY, Schaum’s Outline
Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1967.








PROCEDURES OF PRODUCING
Methylphosphoryldifluoride
the precursor of SARIN
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad
(October 22, 2006)

Abstract : Five steps of producing Methylphosphoryldifluoride are described with adequate details to show the procedures but not for producing because some data such as weights of raw materials and operating conditions are not disclosed. The author also suggested that SARIN may be useful in medicine such as for curing post-traumatic stress disorder, help
people to forget bad experience or secret stories, by inhibiting or destroying synapses of specific nerves in certain part of the brain.


What is Methylphosphoryldifluoride? The answer can be found from several websites on the internet. Some websites give incorrect information about the production process such as only four chemicals are required to produce it. Knowledge about SARIN can also be found in several websites including how to produce it using Methylphosphoryldifluoride and IPA (Isopropyl Alcohol).

1. Raw materials required to produce Methylphosphoryldifluoride.

1) PS2 = Decaline C10H18 98%
2) PL2 = Methanol CH3OH 96.5%
3) PS1 = 3,3-Dimethyl, 2-Butanol CH3C(CH3)2CHOHCH3 98.5%
4) PH1 = Tributhylamine N(CH2CH2CH2CH3)3 98%
5) PH2 = Sodium Fluoride NaF (powder) 97.8-98.4%
6) PS3 = Sodium Sulfide Na2S (solid) 60%
7) PS8 = Thionylchloride SOCl2 99.5%
8) PS4 = Phosphorustrichloride PCl3 99.5%
9) PL3 = Chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 99%
10) PL4 = 2-Chloroethanol Cl-CH2CH2OH 99%
11) PW = Process Water H2O (Demineralizer 10 – 18 MegaOhm)

Codes of Chemicals, Mixers, and Reactors

Step No.
Codes of Chemicals
Code of Mixers
Code of Reactors
Step 1
Raw materials PS1, PS2, PL2, and PH1
Intermediate PM1
M-22
(SS 316L)
R-22 and R-23
(SS 316L)
Step 2
Raw material PH2
Intermediate PM2

None
R-62
(Glass Lined)
Step 3
Raw materials PS4, PS8
Intermediate PM3
M-27
(Glass Lined)
R-26
(Glass Lined)
Step 4
Raw materials PS3, PL3, PW
Intermediate PM4
M-30
(Glass Lined)
R-30
(Glass Lined)
Step 5
Raw material PL4
Intermediates PM3, PM4

None
R-33
(Glass Lined)

Notes: 1) There are various vessels to receive distillate, intermediate and wastewater too.
All mixers are equipped with agitator, temperature probe, pressure indicator, valves, nozzles, and a dosing pump at the bottom (except for M-27).
All reactors are equipped with agitator, packed column, temperature probe, pressure indicator, valves nozzles, and a drain valve.
An evaporator D-62 is needed in Step 1.The evaporator D-62 needs no agitator. New technology uses thin film evaporator in place of common evaporator. Still a common evaporator is required as back up.
5) The total volume of mixers and reactors for the production of 944 liters of
Methylphosphoryldifluoride in industrial scale are as follows:
M-22 = 2500 lt., M-27 = 630 lt., M-30 = 630 lt., M-31 = 630 lt, R-22 =
20600 lt, R-23 = 12250 lt, R-62 = 855 lt., R- 26 = 2040 lt.,R-30 = 2040 lt.,
R-33 = 2040 lt.


3. STEP 5 The last step

The last step of producing Methylphosphoryldifluoride is to mix and boil three components together in R-33 at constant temperature while distillation. One is a raw material PL4, the others are intermediate chemicals produced in step 3 (PM3) and step 4 (PM4).

Reaction Summary PL4 + PM3 + PM4 = Methylphosphoryldifluoride.

Procedure
1. Pump XPL4 kilograms of pure PL4 from the storage tank to R-33.
2. Pump XPM3 kilograms of PM3 from the vessel V-28 to R-33.
3. Pump XPM4 kilograms of PM4 from the vessel V-32 to R-33.
4. Stir well and heat up R-33 until reflux occurs. Separate the distillate to a glass vessel
V-65. Maintain the temperature of the liquid in R-33 by means of reflux and
temperature control. Now we have Methylphosphoryldifluoride in V-65.
5. After finished the equipment is washed by PL4, drain and followed by caustic soda
solution for cleaning.


4. STEP4 Procedure of producing PM4


Reaction Summary PM3 + PL3 + PS3 + PW = PM4 (after distillation)

Procedure
Pump X1PL3 kilograms of pure PL3 into the reactor R-30.
Weight XPS3 kilograms of PS3 and fill it in R-30, then stir well.
Pour XPW kilograms of PW (process water) into R-30, the mixture will be suspension.
Heat up the reactor until reflux occurred and maintain.
Pump X2PL3 kilograms of pure PL3 into the mixer M-30.
Pump XPM3 kilograms of PM3 from the vessel V-28 into the mixer M-30. Stir well.
Pump the mixture in M-30 slowly by dosing pump to R-30 while always keeping reflux continued through out the dosing.
After dosing finished, boil the mixture in R-30 at reflux temperature until the reactions stop. Measure and record the weight ratio of PL3 : PM4 obtained by titration.
Distill the mixture at head temperature and keep the distillate in V-31.
The bottom of R30 is poured into M-31, add Caustic soda solution, drain the suspension from R-30 into M-31. Stir well. Cool it down.
Wash R-30 with pure PL3. Stir well and drain the waste into M-31.
Stir the suspension in M-31 until all the solids are dissolved, the pH must be high enough. Stop stirring and let precipitation occur.
Two choices are to be chose. First choice is to distill PL3 in the waste and return to storage tank for the next batch. It requires another reactor to do this job. This is done in large production scale ,i.e. about 1,000 kilograms product per batch.. Second choice is dumping the waste to wastewater treatment plant. This is suitable for laboratory scale ,i.e. about 10 kilogram of product per batch.
The distillate in V-31 is still not pure enough. It is the mixture of solvent and product.
Pump the distillate in V-31 into R-30 and distill PM4 at constant reflux ratio. The pure PM4 obtained is filled in V-32. Distillation stop when the head temp is reached.
Again we may distill the remaining PL3 in R-30 for the next batch or dump it away.


5. STEP3 Procedure of producing PM3

Reaction Summary PM2 + PS4 + PS8 = PM3 (after distillation)

Procedure
Pump XPS8 kilograms of pure PS8 into R-26.
Pump XPM2 kilograms of PM2 from V-62 to mixer M-27 then add XPS4 kilograms of PS4 into M-27 through the nozzle and stir well.
Heat up R-26 and dose the mixture in M-27 by gravity to R-26 by controlling the
flow in order to regulate the temperature of R-26 and the waste gas must not too much.
After dosing, stir slowly. Temperature rises up, then stir a while and stop.
The excess of PS8 in R-26 shall be distilled at small vacuum pressure and T1degree Celcius. The distillate PS8 is kept in V-26 for using in the next batch.
Then, reduce pressure in R-26 to a vacuum of P1 Milli Bar and distill for the product at T2 degree Celcius , the distilled product PM3 is filled in V-28. Cool down R-26 and drain the waste into a plastic drum for further treatment.


6. STEP2 Procedure of producing PM2

Reaction Summary PM1 + PH2 = PM2 (after distillation)

Procedure
Pump XPM1 kilograms of PM1 from V-60 to R-62 and heat up to distill excessive PS2 away to a plastic drum. Then, reduce the temperature of R-62 and purge with nitrogen twice.
Pour XPH2 kilograms of PH2 through the manhole of R-62. Stir well. Then, heat up
to reflux temperature and keep the boiling temperature for a while. Then, heat up to
reflux temperature and keep the reflux continue at all time. The temperature rises up
keep on stirring then cool it down.
Reduce vacuum to P2 Milli Bar and distill the mixture at T2 degree Celcius. The pure distilled PM2 will be kept in V-62 while the bottom of R-62 is dumped into a plastic drum for further treatment and disposal.

Wash R-62 with water and drain it to wastewater treatment plant, then add caustic
soda solution into R-62. Heat up and distill until reflux occur, then leave the reactor
cool down. Drain the wastewater into wastewater treatment plant and leave R-62 dry
by evacuation.

7. STEP1 Procedure of producing PM1

Reaction Summary PS1 + PL2 + PS2 + PH1 = PM1 (after distillation)

Procedure
Pump XPS1 kilograms of pure PS1 into V-22
Pump X1PL2 kilograms of PL2 into mixer M-22 and pump XPS1 kilogram of PS1from V-22 into M-22. Stir well.
Pump XPH1 kilograms of PH1, pump X2PL2 kilograms of PL2 and pump XPS2
kilograms of PS2 into R-22. Stir well and reduce temperature of R-22 not to have reflux.
Pump the mixture in M-22 by dosing pump intoR-22 slowly. Control temperature
(the heat generated from the reaction can be controlled by the rate of dosing pump)
After half of the mixture in M-22 is used there will be slurry of salt increasing in R-22. The temperature in R-22 will rise up when the mixture in M-22 is nearly exhausted. The reaction generates waste gas which must be scrubbed out. Stir R-22
well.
5. After finished dosing, the temperature in R-22 still rises up gradually. Stir well and
Heat up R-22 slowly but lower than reflux temperature. Until the temperature is
stable. Then stop stirring and allow precipitation to occur in R-22. As R-22 is too big
to do further processing, so we need R-23 to do the job. Pump the clear top layer of
R-22 into V-23 and pump the bottom sludge of R-22 into R-23. (The pump and pipe
from R-22 to R-23 need heat tracing in order to prevent clogging.)
6. Heat up R-23 to distillate product to V-23. Now, we have not got PM1 in V-23 yet.
The mixture in V-23 still required further fine evaporation with thin film evaporator
or common evaporator.
7. The remaining liquid in R-23 shall be mixed with caustic soda solution and heat up
gently. The liquid will be separated into 2 layers. The bottom part shall be drained to
wastewater treatment plant, leaving the top layer which shall be mixed with process
water. Again we may distill the remaining PH1 in R-23 azeotropically for using in
the next batch or dump it away, depending on how big is the scale of production.
Pump the mixture from V-23 gradually to thin film evaporator or common evaporator for evaporation at P3 Milli Bar and below T3 degree Celcius. The bottom product is the required PM1 to be filled in V-60. The vapor is PL2 which can be condensed and pumped in to the storage tank of PL2 for the next batch.

Remarks: Methylphosphoryldifluoride + Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) CH3CHOHCH3 99.7%
= SARIN.
Procedure of producing SARIN: By slowly gravitational dosage of IPA into
Methylphosphoryldifluoride in R-33 while stirring in such a way that there is
reflux at all time without heating, the ratio of Methylphosphoryldifluoride and
IPA by volume is 5.64 : 10,waste gases are delivered to waste gas scrubber. After
finished dosage of IPA then cool down the reactor to T1 degree Celcius and
reduce the pressure of the reactor to P Milli bar to distill out waste gases for a
while and heat up the reactor slowly to T2 to distill out SARIN as the product.

Applications Hint: SARIN may be useful in curing post-traumatic stress disorder by inhibiting or destroying synapses of specific nerves in certain part of the brain which control the memory which causes the syndrome. In addition, if we know which part of the brain controls which specific memory, sad experience or secret stories, then SARIN can be used to erase those sad experience or secret stories from the brain.

---- sahatchaiw@yahoo.com-----






PROCEDURES OF PRODUCING
Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide, distilled 96%
Mustard Gas
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad
(October 22, 2006)

Abstract : Four steps of producing Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% are described with adequate details to show the procedure but not for producing because some data such as weights of raw materials and operating conditions are not disclosed. The objective of this article is to fill up some information about the procedure of producing this chemical which can hardly be found on other websites.


Information about Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide can be found on various websites. But no step by step procedures of producing have been described by any article on the websites so far. Thus, this article is to fill up some information about the procedures of producing this chemical which can hardly be found on other websites.


1. Raw materials required to produce Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide
1) PS6 = Dichloromethane CH2Cl2 99%
2) PL5 = Ethanol C2H5OH 96.5%
3) PS3 = Sodium Sulfide Na2S (solid) 60%
4) PS8 = Thionylchloride SOCl2 99.5%
5) PA1 = Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 (conc.) 98%
6) PW = Process Water H2O (Demineralizer 10 MegaOhm)


Codes of Chemicals, Mixers, and Reactors

Step No.
Codes of Chemicals
Code of Mixer
and Centrifuge
Code of Reactors
Step 1
Raw materials PA1, PW
Intermediate PM5
Mixer M-40
(Glass Lined)

None
Step 2
Raw materials PL5, PS3, PS6
Intermediate PM5, PM6

None
R-40
(SS 316 L)
Step 3
Raw material PL5
Intermediate PM6
Centrifuge Z-41
(SS 316 L)

None
Step 4
Raw material PS8
Intermediate PM6


R-42
(Glass Lined)


Notes: 1) There are various vessels to receive distillate, intermediate and wastewater too.
The mixer is equipped with agitator, temperature probe, pressure indicator, valves, nozzles and drain valve.
All reactors are equipped with agitator, temperature probe, pressure indicator,
valves nozzles, and a drain valve.
4) The total volume of mixer and reactors for the production of 726 liters of
Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% in industrial scale are as follows:
M-40 = 630 lt., R-40 = 3000 lt., R-42 = 1470 lt.,



3. STEP 1 Preparation of PM5

Reaction Summary

PA1 + PW = PM5

Procedure
1. Pump XPW kilograms of pure PW from the storage tank to M-40.
2. Pump XPA1 kilograms of PA1 from the storage tank slowly to M-40 while stirring
the temperature of the mixer rises up. Cool down the mixer with cooling water.
3. The mixture in M-40 is PM5 is ready to dose into R-40 slowly by gravity.

4. STEP 2 Preparation of mixture in R-40 and perform chemical reactions

Reaction Summary

PL5 + PS3 + PS6 + PM5 = PM6 (in suspension)

Procedure
Pump XPL5 kilograms of pure PL5 from the storage tank to R-40.. Transport XPS3 kilograms of PS3 from the silo slowly into the manhole of R-40 while stirring. Pump XPS6 kilograms of pure PS6 from the storage tank to a vessel V-40 ready to be dosed into R-40 by gravity.
The temperature in R-40 rises up. Once reflux occurs, dose PS6 from V-40 by gravity
slowly. When dosing PS6 has finished the mixture is boiled at reflux temperature for
a while and keep the temperature of the mixture constant. Then cool down the reactor to room temperature.
Dose PM5 from M-40 into R-40 slowly by gravity. Waste gases will be evaporated
from the mixture gradually until finished by evacuation. The remaining is suspension
salt in R- 40 which contains PM6.


5. STEP 3 Centrifugation

Procedure
Pump all suspension salt in R-40 into centrifuge Z-41 and keep the liquid in vessel V-41.
Now we have PM6 in V-41 already.
Clean Z-41 with PL5 to remove all solids on it and make Z-41 dried. Solid and liquid wastes are put into plastic drum for disposal.
The empty R-40 will be cleaned with PL5. The waste is centrifuged in Z-41 and the liquid part (filtrate) is kept in V-41. The centrifuge is then cleaned and dried.
Pump XPM6 kilograms of PM6 (filtrate) from V-41 into R-40 and distill out water and PL5 at P1 milli bar pressure and at T1 degree Celcius. The remaining filtrate is pumped into R-40 to distill out PL5 and water at P2 milli bar pressure until finished and the resulting precut is obtained as PM6 to be filled in V-42 which is equipped with a dosing pump.
5. Liquid in R-40 will be cooled down and mixed with PL5. Heat up until reflux occurs
for a while and cool down the reactor. Then, drain the waste into a plastic drum for
disposal.





6. STEP 4 Making distilled Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96%

Reaction Summary

PS8 + PM6 = Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% (after distillation)

Procedure
1. Pump XPS8 kilograms of pure PS8 from the storage tank to R-42 which is clean and
perfectly dry. Heat up R-42 to T2 degree Celcius and dose PM6 slowly with dosing pump
into R-42 while controlling gas and regulate temperature of R-42 through out dosing of
PM6. The waste gases are scrubbed in the waste gas scrubber.
2. After dosing finished then heat up the mixture slowly until the temperature reaches
T3 degree Celcius. Then, excessive PS8 and other waste gases will be evaporated out.
The distilled PS8 will be condensed and is kept in V-45. The last content of dissolved
gases will be removed by evacuation. The product will be distilled at P3 milli bar and
T4 degree Celcius.
3. The distilled product will be kept in V-44. The gas in this vessel must be regularly
vented. Now we have Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% in V-44.
4. The remaining mixture in R-42 will be cooled down and mixed with PL5. Then, heat up
until reflux occurs for a while and cool the reactor down again. Then, clean R-42 with
excess caustic soda and drain away to wastewater treatment plant.
R-42 will be dried by evacuation. All equipment will be cleaned with excess caustic soda.



REMARK:
Property and method of identification of Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96%
No color to yellow, M.P. = 14.4 C, B.P. 218 C (1ATM) , Refractive Index at 20 C 1.5218,
Cp,liq = 170 J/Mole K, Cp,gas = 150 J/Mole K, Vis. at 20C = 0.4 MPa sec, S.G. (20C) 1.7
Soluable in water = 0.8 gm/lt of water, Heat evap. = He = 59.8 kJ/Mole
Gas Chromatograph (column) OV1, 50m. (Capillary Column),
Method of Identification = NMR-spectrum 2 Trifplates by diff. Shifts solvent acetone (D6)

Questions and Answers from my believing and experience.

1) Question: Who is the greatest god of all gods?
Answer: Siva is the greatest god of all gods in the Universe.
2) Question: Who is the greatest god on the planets?
Answer: Brahma who got order from Siva to create living environment on the planets for Angels and
Asuras. Earth was not intentionally created for human. Human beings have just been evolving
from primates. The direction of human’s evolution is to improve sensory perception for the 5thD.
3) Question: Where are the Angels and Asuras on earth?
Answer: Everywhere in higher dimensions than the 4D (3 space + 1 time) of which 5 physical senses of
human beings and creatures (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and touch) can not be perceptible.
4) Question: Why does Brahma who is the son of Siva and Vishnu look like an old man while Siva and Vishnu
look young?
Answer: Brahma had to work in the time field on the planets while Siva and Vishnu had never. But, the
split souls of Siva and Vishnu which came to earth get older and older with time.
5) Question: Why does Brahma have 4 faces?
Answer: The 4 faces of Brahma are able to be rotated, meaning, he has no senses of front nor back, and
left nor right. This is a metaphor to teach everyone about how to live together peacefully by
means of sincerity (no front nor back) and impartiality (no left nor right).
6) Question: Why did Prince Sitthatta (Buddha) have a tremendous effort to find ways how to cease
reincarnation of individual by going to nirvana?
Answer: Because he was shocked when he found that life is not eternal as his father King Sutthotana) had
been deceiving him by not allowing him to see birth, aging, illness and death for 26 years. This
inspired him by a great deal to find ways how to cease reincarnation. And he found one way.
7) Question: Why do Buddhist monks eat meat while they are teaching people that killing is a sin?
Answer: The prime duty of the Buddhist monks is to hold 227 commandments so that they will be able to
deliver food donated by putting food in the bowls of Buddhist monks in the morning to the world
of the dead after eating the food. As the soul of the dead needs to eat and they eat meat as do
their relatives who donated food which contains meat for the Buddhist monks in the morning.
Such food can also be delivered to wait for the donators after dead if the donators did not intend
to send it to their relatives in the world of the dead. The point is that in order that the food can be
delivered to the world of the dead, the Buddhist monks must eat it. Thus, in the community
where people eat meat, the Buddhist monks must eat meat too. But if people in the community
are vegetarian then the Buddhist monks shall eat vegetarian food. The excessive food which is
given by the monks to poor people shall not be delivered to the world of the dead but became
a merit to the donators only. Buddhist monks shall not receive too much food more than they can
eat (as stipulated by Buddha), and people should not donate food to the Buddhist monks who
have already got too much food either. Buddha stipulated that Buddhist monks must eat all
donated food in their bowl in 1-2 meals before noon. He prohibited to eat some meats e.g. tiger’s.
8) Question: Will cloning of human make the same original person?
Answer: No, it won’t. Cloning of human body did not clone his/her soul either.
9) Question: What is Soul?
Answer: A soul is an individual life form in higher dimensions than the 4D (3 space +1time) of which the
sensory perceptions of humans and creatures can not be perceptible.
10) Question: Do plants have soul?
Answer: Yes, they have but different from creatures and of lower ranks.
11) Question: Does microorganism have soul?
Answer: Yes, in simple form. The souls (not body) of virus/bacteria/diseases are the results of Mantras of
Angels, Asuras, Bodhisattvas (Guang-Im for HIV), Gods, Goddesses, Nakas (for shingles), etc.
12) Question: Do the holy-statues have soul in them permanently?
Answer: No. But a soul can superimpose onto a holy-statue from time to time. A common to medium rank
soul can superimpose onto a person and controls his/her body to be the medium. High rank souls
do it by grasping at the medium’s brain-stem as they are too powerful for the medium to bear.
13) Question: Can soul die?
Answer: Yes. When soul died by being killed in the fight with other soul or by focusing on a very high
rank soul, that person (in 4D) will die for real within 3 months. Soul can get old when it is in time
field and can be weak or ill. A soul can be split to take one part of split outstanding Karma of that
soul when his/her Karma is too much for it to take liability in reasonable times of reincarnation.
Low rank souls are opaque while higher rank souls are more transparent. Souls have colors too.
14) Question: What is life?
Answer: Life is a physical body in 4D combined with a soul (life form in higher dimensions than 4D).
Thus, a life form is a soul free from body or a soul situated in a body. (Souls are in 5D or more.)
15) Question: How many dimensions does the Universe have?
Answer: Eleven. The higher the dimension, the higher the rank of soul (the original one) is situated there.
16) Question: How can we contact souls in the 5D or more
Answer: By meditation or by the 6th sense (mind). An experienced person can move his/her soul to other
places with one end of the soul string still be connected to the crown of his/her head. The longer
the distance the more difficult for that person to breathe. Overseas are considered a short distance.
7) Question: Does projective geometry end at Pascal’s theorem (1640 A.D.) and Brianchon’s Theorem (1810
A.D.) on hexagon inscribed or circumscribed a conic section?
Answer: No, it does not. See my articles No. 1 and 3 on this website where two and three conic sections
and polygons play their roles in projective geometry.
8) Question: Can we explain the behavior of non-equilibrium systems by existing math?
Answer: No. Calculus of non-equilibrium systems is required together with some physical laws which
govern basic behaviors of non-equilibrium systems. Statistical physics will be revolutionized.
My articles on this shall be posted here on this website. (But not soon.)

BRAHMACITTA
Principle and Practice to get Brahma’s Mind for Laypersons
By
Sahatchai Wanawongsawad
Figure 1: Jesus, God’s son, taught his disciples to LOVE each other. Loving, kindness and helping each other are combined to be the Primary Dharma of Mankind.
NOTE: In Christian societies, people seek for love throughout of their life. In the past to present, they have been developing their society based on loving, kindness and helping each other, the Jesus’ thought. Anyhow presently, in addition, some countries have been developing their society to have good governance too. This requires SINCERITY and IMPARTIALITY of people as basis which is the Secondary Dharma of Mankind taught by Brahma.
Figure 2: Brahma, 4-face God, the creator of all lives on the planets including Earth, taught mankind, the secondary Dharma of mankind, by the metaphor of his rotational 4-face head on good governance by having Sincerity (no front or back) and Impartiality (no left or right) among mankind. Another teaching is the 4-BRAHMA-VIHARN Dharma, consisting of METTA (Loving-kindness), KARUNA (Compassion), MUDITA (Sympathetic Joy) and UPEKKHA (Equanimity), for the divine abiding and peace of mind. (Note that in Hindu Culture there is only one Brahma, but in Brahma Culture there are many Brahmas and many levels of Brahmas too.)
Figure 3: Sakyamuni Buddha (SA-KYA stands for “Compassion and Mercy”, MU-NI stands for “Pure and Tranquil”, Buddha stands for “Perfect Wisdom and Awakening”), the Root Teacher of Buddhism, taught his layperson students (not SANGHA which stands for “harmony” and means the novices and the monks) to hold 5-percept or 8-percept depending on the status and readiness of each layperson. Apart from DHARMA (stands for everything, universe(s), theories, phenomena) and PERCEPTS, Buddha also taught mankind to DONATE and to do MEDITATION. Donation is obvious, but meditation, which is the path to be ARAHAT, BODHISATTVA and BUDDHA (Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. degrees of Buddhism so to speak), requires a very firm foundation of mind, the mind which is clean and very strong (enough to prevail the GOD of the EVIL) or the ADVANCED BRAHMACITTA. NOTE that Buddha taught a lot more than this in Buddhism culture.
DEFINITION 1: BRAHMACITTA means Brahma’s mind which holds the mind of an individual mentally at all time with the Primary Dharma of Mankind consisting of Loving, Kindness and Helping each other, and the Secondary Dharma of Mankind consisting of Sincerity and Impartiality and 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma of Brahma consisting of METTA (Loving-kindness), KARUNA (Compassion), MUDITA (Sympathetic Joy) and UPEKKHA Equanimity).
DEFINITION 2: ADVANCED BRAHMACITTA means Brahma’s mind which holds the mind of an individual at all time mentally with the Primary Dharma of Mankind consisting of Loving, Kindness and Helping each other, and the Secondary Dharma of Mankind consisting of Sincerity and Impartiality, 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma of Brahma consisting of METTA (Loving-kindness), KARUNA (Compassion), MUDITA (Sympathetic Joy) and UPEKKHA (Equanimity), and mentally either intermittently or continuously holds the 5-percept or 8-percept of Buddha.
BACKGROUND: The development of mankind civilization began with the Primary Dharma of mankind which consists of loving-kindness-helpful. People seek for love through out of their life. Some of them are successful, some are partially successful and need help from others, but many of them failed, could not control their mind or end up with mentally ill and lonely. In addition presently, some civilized countries regardless of religions have been developing their society to have good governance too. To make this attempt successful it requires people in the society to have the Secondary Dharma of Mankind taught by Brahma too which means people must have Sincerity and Impartiality in their mind (or behavior) However, Brahma also taught the Secondary Dharma to Mankind, the so called 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma of Brahma that he holds (in Hindu Culture or they hold in Brahma Culture) which consists of METTA (Loving-kindness), KARUNA (Compassion), MUDITA (Sympathetic Joy) and UPEKKHA(Equanimity), for the divine abiding and peace of mind. Note that the first Dharma of the 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma, METTA or Loving-kindness, is very similar to the Primary Dharma of mankind taught by the Jusus, and the forth item of the 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma, UPEKKHA or Equanimity, can make people control their mind, thus, having mantle to protect them from too much sorrow, and lonely. Therefore, the successful development of mankind’s societies, the ideal societies in which people have loving-kindness-helpful and good governance and so on, requires that people in all societies must hold the Primary Dharma of mankind, the Secondary Dharma of Mankind and the 4- Brahmaviharn Dharma of Brahma. Note that after getting good governance societies as all people have and hold the Primary Dharma of mankind, the Secondary Dharma of Mankind then they can also develop their societies more by means of Brahmacitta in order to get the ideal Societies of the Diviners. So far it is good enough for people (mankind) to get Brahma’s mind held on their mind or in other word, BRAHMACITTA.
But for those who seek for “Perfect Wisdom and Awakening” by meditation which requires more firm foundation of mind, the mind which is clean and strong (enough to prevail the GOD of the EVIL). Holding the 5 percepts or 8 percepts of Buddha by both Physical and Mental, namely, Advanced Brahmacitta is recommended for those who want to achieve high levels of meditation. Usually, most Buddhism laypersons have and hold the 5 percepts of Buddha only physically. Holding 5 percepts or 8 percepts (or Uposotha Sila) of Buddha mentally may seem to be weird for most people. But it is needed for those who want to be ARAHAT, BODHISATTVA and BUDDHA (Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. degrees of Buddhism so to speak). In fact, it will be easier to achieve high levels of meditation (either ARNAPANASATI scheme or VIPASSANA scheme) if your mind has achieved ADVANCED BRAHMACITTA which means achieving Brahmacitta plus holding 5 - 8 percepts of Buddha by both physical and mental at all time or very long period of time mentally and intermittently (at least 2 hours a day).
THE PRINCIPLE: BRAHMACITTA can only be achieved by holding the Primary Dharma of Mankind, the Secondary Dharma of Mankind and 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma of Brahma physically and mentally at all time. ADVANCED BRAHMACITTA can only be achieved by achieving Brahmacitta plus holding 5 - 8 percepts of Buddha by both physical and mental.
From my experience, mental practice of Advanced Brahmacitta usually takes not longer than 2 hours as it is very difficult to hold 5 - 8 percepts of Buddha mentally or by one’s mind for a long time. Meditation manners such as sitting cross-legged (see Figure 3) or walking back and forth and so on are employed in practicing Brahmacitta and Advanced Brahmacitta mentally. Regarding Advanced Brahmacitta, depending on the status and readiness of each layperson, either 5-percept or 8-percept (Uposotha Sila) can be chosen by each practitioner. For example, normal laypersons who have been married and cannot hold the 3rd percept of Uposotha Sila must hold 5 percepts, while some laypersons, usually not many people, can hold the 3rd percept of Uposotha Sila and can follow the percepts No. 6 to No.8 which includes having one meal per day and so on should hold 8 percepts which is of higher rank than taking the 5 percepts. To increase difficulty some practitioners of the later case should try to be vegetarian too. However, the practitioners who usually hold 5 percepts should try to hold 8 percepts for a short period such as 7 days or 15 days depending on their convenience too. The more difficult you take in the practice, the cleaner and more powerful your Advanced Brahmacitta or Advanced Brahma’s mind will be.
THE OBJECTIVES:
Brahmacitta is to prepare people’s mind (or behavior) for being a part of good governance society and ideal society of the diviners in the future. Peach among humans will be the consequence of such societies.
Brahmacitta is to prepare people to have protection or to have mental capability to defend from failure in seeking for love, getting hurt from disappointments or departing from beloved ones or be lonely and so on.
Advanced Brahmacitta is to prepare people who want to practice high levels of meditation easier.
Advanced Brahmacitta is to prepare the practitioners to get better contacts with the guardian angel(s) of each practitioner. My mentor said that if anyone can mentally hold 5-percept or 8 percept in Advanced Brahmacitta for at least 1 hour everyday, then that person shall be able to contact his/her guardian angel(s) and high rank souls such as the earth kind-hearted goddess, local guardian spirit(s) of the land, as well as ordinary souls or ghosts and so on. Once the practitioners can contact their guardian angel(s) then it is safer for them to move their soul into the 5D world under the protection of their guardian angel(s) because the 5D world is quite a dangerous place especially for the newcomers. (See HYPERLINK "http://www.geocities.com/book_2546/" www.geocities.com/book_2546/ for the books about experiences in removal and moving soul into the 5D world. Every page of the books can be printed out but the books are in Thai.) However, the author does not recommend the readers to practice meditation alone without experience mentor who can review the students past deeds (Karma) and capable of negotiating with the past deeds because the god of the evil may use the students’ past deeds to attack them, their property-job- business, and their beloved ones. The higher the level of meditation you are practicing the harder the attack from the god of the evil and his disciples. Because meditation is the way to be Brahma over the 6th level of heaven and achieving Asawakayayarn by Vipassana scheme of meditation to be ARAHAT, BODHISATTVA or BUDDHA is the way to escape from the past deeds. In Brahma culture the god of the evil is on the 6th level of heaven and occupies half of the total territory on that level of heaven, the other half belongs to Boranimitta Deva Raja who is a god of the good. From 18 levels of Hell to Earth upto the 6th level of heaven, there are 5D. Above them are 20 levels more of heaven for various levels of Brahma of which the number of dimension are from 6D to 11D.
Note: At a certain age which shall be different from one person to another, the guardian angel(s) of each person will try to communicate with that person to tell him/her what to do and not to do for prosperity, healthiness, warning of danger, solving problems like finding lost things–the right books in the library-person(s)-soul(s), guiding to the person who can help solving problem(s), telling story in the past with photos or see the remote place(s) or future as still 2D pictures (which from my experience are usually black & white and can be zoomed-in and zoomed-out), etc. But the signals from guardian angel(s) usually gentle and people who have not practice or have inadequate former merits cannot detect those signals. From my experience, at the age of twelve in 1967, I was assigned to draw any creature in the nature by the art teacher. The picture that I drew was two Angler fishes. That was 20 years before they were discovered for the first time by scientists who dived in a submarine to the deepest ocean. I was punished by the teacher by flogging on my hands after he told the other students that the creatures I had drawn were never exist in nature which contradicted to his specific instruction. That was because of my former merits. After achieving the primitive Advanced Brahmacitta by holding 8 percepts and was vegetarian for about 2 years with 1 hour mental holding of 8 percepts per day, in the first year the signals from my guardian angels were very clear. I could sense that there are 4 guardian angels but my mentor said there are 8 of them. The messages were sent as a faint signal direct to the brain within a quarter of a second no matter how long the message was (not as indistinct hearing by ears). It took almost one year to get enough skill in communication with my guardian angles. So, it requires practicing to discriminate the faint signals from the guardian angel(s) and the background noises including your own thinking and guessing. Sometimes the guardian angel of the other person sent some messages to my guardian angel to ask for telling me to tell that person what the guardian angel of that person wanted that person to know because that person could not receive the signals. The readers should know that communication with their guardian angels does not come automatically after achieving Advanced Brahmacitta but requires practicing. Also the readers must realize that we are not controlling our guardian angel(s) but merely receive their faint signals, see what they let us see and follow instructions from them. This is important thing to know. The more you practice the better you will be and if you do not practice Advanced Brahmacitta and communication with your guardian angel(s) you will lose this ability because only Asawakayayarn, the highest level of Vipassana scheme of meditation, is permanent.
Both Brahmacitta and Advanced Brahmacitta are to prepare the practitioners’ mind to be able to cope with the moment of death with consciousness and bravery.
Both Brahmacitta and Advanced Brahmacitta are to transfer the merits to every creature including ourselves, our friends and foes and our beloved ones or pets or other creatures.
PROCEDURES OF PRACTICE:
(1) Place: For the beginners it is advised to sit in a quiet room with air conditioner or in open air with no odors. If you have an altar in the room, you should sit in front of the altar facing the altar except for the altar of the passed away relative. Light up a candle throughout the period of your practicing. NOTE: For the expert, I recommend that he/she should try to control the flame of the candle and light it up with his/her mind when it was put out by the wind. After achieving that he/she should try further to sense the movement of the air around the body and make strong wind with his/her mind. Controlling water and soil are more difficult but challenging.
Time: After awoke and personal daily morning routine finished in the early morning. After practice you will not return to sleep again. However, someone may want to practice 2 – 3 times a day, in this case the good time for practicing depends on convenience.
(3) Manner: Sit cross-legged like Buddha in figure 3. You may have bodily movement anytime you want and resume the former sitting again when the ache has relaxed. But don’t worry about your deportment too much. When we are skillful in the procedures we can and should try to practice in any deportment all day long.
3.1 Orally chant the Namo Verses of Buddha in Pali (left) or both Pali and English (right) as follows: (Skip this if you do not want to practice Advanced Brahmacitta or are not Buddhism.)
“Namo tassa bhagavato
arahato
sammasambudhassa” (thrice)
“Homage to the Uncomparable One,
The Worthy Undefiled One,
The Perfectly Self-Awakened One.” (thrice)
Orally chant the Verses for paying homage to the Triple Gem (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) as follows:
(Skip this if you do not want to practice Advanced Brahmacitta or are not Buddhism.)
“Arahamsammasambuddho bhagava,

Buddhambhagavantamabhivademi.

(Make the five-point prostration once)

Svakkhato bhagavata dhammo,
Dhammam namassami.

(Make the five-point prostration once)

Supatipanno bhagavato savakasangho
Sangham namami.”

(Make the five-point prostration once)
The Exalted One, far from defilements,
Perfect Enlightened by Himself,
I bow low before the Buddha, the Exalted One.
(Make the five-point prostration once)

The Teaching, well-expounded by the Exalted One,
I bow low before the Dharma.
(Make the five-point prostration once)

The Sangha of disciples who have practiced well,
I bow low before the Sangha.
(Make the five-point prostration once)
Now, we will mentally consider the Primary Dharma of Mankind (slowly) as follows:
(Start here if you do not want to practice Advanced Brahmacitta or are not Buddhism.)
To whom did I love yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on up to 7 days or more?
To whom did I help yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on up to 7 days or more?
To whom will I love more today and tomorrow?
To whom will I help more today and tomorrow?
To me what have I done to help or improve myself today, yesterday and the day before yesterday?
To me what will I do to help or improve myself tomorrow?
3.4 Then, we will mentally consider the Secondary Dharma of Mankind (slowly) as follows:
To whom did I provide sincerity yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on up to 7 days or more?
To whom did I provide impartiality yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on up to 7 days or more?
To whom will I provide sincerity today and tomorrow?
To whom will I provide impartiality today and tomorrow?
To me what have I done on sincerity to myself today, yesterday and the day before yesterday?
To me what will I do on sincerity to myself tomorrow?
To me what have I done on impartiality to myself today, yesterday and the day before yesterday?
To me what will I do on impartiality to myself tomorrow?
3.5 Then, we will mentally consider the 4-BRAHMAVIHARN Dharma of Brahma (slowly) as follows:
(1) LOVING and KINDNESS
(Name of person No.1), may you be free from enmity, may you be free from ill-treatment, may you be free from troubles of body and mind, and may you protect their own happiness.
(2) COMPASSION
(Name of person No.1), may you be free from loss, may you be free from obscurity, may they be free from blame, and may you be free from suffering.
(3) SYMPATHETIC JOY
(Name of person No.1), may you not be parted from the wealth, may you not be parted from the dignity, may you not be parted from the praise, may you not be parted from the happiness obtained by them.
(4) EQUANIMITY
(Name of person No.1), is the owner of his/her deed, heir to his/her deed, born of his/her deed, related to his/her deed, abide supported by his/her deed, whatever deed he/she will do, for good or for evil, that he/she will be their heirs.
(Repeat step 1 to step 4 but changing the name of persons or even your pets to which or whom you want to transfer the merit. Mentally call the name of your beloved persons who are being in troubles, being ill, going to die or had passed away first, then other persons next, starting from the nearest person. It will be great if you can transfer this merit to all of your foes or the ones you hate.)
Go to step 3.7 if you do not want to practice Advanced Brahmacitta or are not Buddhism.
The followings are for the practitioners of Advanced Brahmacitta only.
Mentally chant as follows: (Choose either a), b) for the 5-percept or c), d) for the 8-percept (Uposotha Sila).
Asking for the Five Percepts orally for Advanced Brahmacitta Practice.
(For ordinary people who have been married and inconvenient to eat only once a day and etc.)
(Skip this if you will choose to hold the Eight Percepts)
“May I, O Venerable Sir, ask for the Five Percepts to observe separately together with the Three Refuges?
For the second time, may I, O Venerable Sir, ask for the Five Percepts to observe separately together with the Three Refuges?
For the third time, may I, O Venerable Sir, ask for the Five Percepts to observe separately together with the Three Refuges?”
The Five Percepts for Advanced Brahmacitta Practice. Mentally think about what you did to comply or not comply with each item of the 5-percept yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on.
“I undertake the percept to abstain from destroying living creatures.
I undertake the percept to abstain from taking what is not given. Even one grain of sand and one drop of water there are owners. In this era the owners are the earth kind-hearted goddess and river kind- hearted goddess, so when I will use anything not belongs to me then I will ask from the owner first. Or if I don’t know to whom it belongs I will ask from the unknown owner with the Namo Verses of Buddha.
I undertake the percept to abstain from wrong conduct in sexual pleasures.
I undertake the percept to abstain from false speech. Apart from this I will also observe my words which have been given to the other person. Should I realize that I cannot observe my words, or my words would have never been observed, I shall not let the other person hear my words. But if I have told the other person already I will try very hard to observe my words by all means.
I undertake the percept to abstain from distilled and fermented intoxicants which are the occasion for carelessness.”
Asking for the Eight Percepts (Uposotha Sila) orally for Advanced Brahmacitta Practice.
(For people who can comply with abstain from unchaste conduct and ready to eat only once a day.)
“O Venerable Sir, I ask for you the Eight Percepts together with the Triple Gem to be our guide.
O Venerable Sir, I ask for you the Eight Percepts together with the Triple Gem to be our guide.
O Venerable Sir, I ask for you the Eight Percepts together with the Triple Gem to be our guide.
I beg to receive the Eight Percepts as ordered by the Lord Buddha and to observe them for one day and one night.”
The Eight Percepts (Uposotha Sila) for Advanced Brahmacitta Practice. Mentally think about what you did to comply or not comply with each item of the 8-percept yesterday, the day before yesterday and so on.
“I undertake the percept to abstain from destroying living creatures.
I undertake the percept to abstain from taking what is not given. Even one grain of sand and one drop of water there are owners. In this era the owners are the earth kind-hearted goddess and river kind-hearted goddess, so when I will use anything then I will ask from the owner first. Or if I don’t know to whom it belongs I will ask from the owners with the Namo Verses of Buddha. (see 3.1)
I undertake the percept to abstain from unchaste conduct.
I undertake the percept to abstain from false speech. Apart from this I will also observe my words which have been given to the other person. Should I realize that I cannot observe my words, or my words would have never been observed, I shall not let the other person hear my words. But if I have told the other person already I will try very hard to observe my words.
I undertake the percept to abstain from distilled and fermented intoxicants which are the occasion for carelessness.
I undertake the percept to abstain from eating at the wrong time (meaning after noon time).
I undertake the percept to abstain from dancing, singing, music, unseemly shows, wearing garlands, apply perfumes and cosmetics.
I undertake percept to abstain from lying on a high or large bed. Apart from this I will raise to high level at all time for the kindness of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, Father, Mother, Teachers, Favorers including Gods, Goddesses, Angles and High Rank Spirits. I will not be presumptuous to show disrespect by all means.”
This item is the most important percept. There are two groups of them. The first is tangible, consisting of Sangha, Father, Mother, Teachers, and Favorers. Should they instruct me to do anything I will consider to do it with my full capability. But if it is over my capability, I will try to find way to do it by chanting “Buddho” until I get intelligent or idea to serve them as good as possible. The second group although intangible, consisting of Gods, Goddesses, Angels and High Rank Spirits, I will pay homage to them by water, flowers, joss sticks, candles and holding the 5-percept or 8-percept.
Then, you mentally separate the items or things you can do and cannot do or did or did not into two groups.
Things you could do or did both physically and mentally.
Things you could not do or did not do physically or mentally.
Finally, you will ask orally for forgiveness from the persons you did not or could not give love-kindness-help, sincerity-impartiality and 4-Brahmaviharn Dharma for BRAHMACITTA, and including 5 or 8 percepts of Buddha for ADVANCED BRAHMACITTA by calling the name of the 1st person and say that “I ask you to forgive me for I could not (or did not) give you or favor you (please explain)” Repeat this statement for other persons until finish. Then, make the five-point prostration thrice and put out the fire of the candle. END.
REMARKS:
Sometimes we do not know the name of the persons we wanted to pray for or send merit to, in that case we can use a pronoun with a short explanation about that person to represent him/her instead.
Regarding the 5 or 8 percepts, while mentally considering the first percept, for example, if you think about roasted chicken with desire to eat then your mental practice stop at this point. Measure the time it takes from item 3.3 to this point and record it. You may try another round starting from item 3.3 immediately after the previous round then record the time you can mentally hold the percepts if it is longer than the previous round.
The same is true for other percepts such as while mentally considering the second percept, if you thing about money or jewelry with desire to own it then your mental practice stop at this point and so on.
(3) In holding the 5 percepts and 8 percepts of Buddha mentally, the sentences in bold fonts on items 2 and 4 for the 5-percept and items 2,4 and 8 (for the 8 percepts) are applied in conjunction with the sentence in normal fonts before them which is applied only to physical practice in Buddhism.
(4) From 3.3 to 3.7 are the transference of merit to the persons you mentioned their name including friends and foes.
(5) Brahmacitta is of lower rank than Meditations in Buddhism or Dharmakaya doctrine but Advanced Brahmacitta may be different. So, those who have achieved Brahmacitta have to pay respect to the one who has achieved Advanced Brahmacitta, or Dharmakaya or from the Primary Contemplation Level of Meditation up. Depending on the longevity of holding the 5-percept or 8-percept of Buddha mentally of the person who has been achieving Advanced Brahmacitta the level of mind of that person may be as high as the highest level of ARNAPANASATI meditation but lower than ARSAWAKAYAYARN, the highest level of VIPASSANA meditation. My mentor said that he/she who has achieved Advanced Brahmacitta will know the level of other persons’ mind at a glance.
(6) Apart from ability to contact his/her own guardian angel(s), it is not possible to tell about what miracles a person who has achieved highly Advanced Brahmacitta can do by considering the longevity of mentally holding of the 5 percepts or 8 percepts of Buddha because it depends on the rank and skill(s) of the guardian angel(s) of that person and his/her former merits. And my mentor said that every Brahma’s mind links up together.

Methods of constructing perspective polygons
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad

Abstract : A new property of conics is demonstrated and the methods of constructing perspective polygons are revealed by means of joining the intersections between conics and the pencils from a common point which is the intersection of the symmetric line and the line passing through the coincided axes of two identical and symmetrical conics regardless of the number and direction of pencils from that point. Dual of this new property of conics is also demonstrated. Theorems can be proved by CAD or MathLab. Deductive and analytical proofs are still unsolved.
Theorem 1
To demonstrate that the intersections of cords obtaining from intersections of the same couple of pencils from the intersection of the symmetry line and the line passing through the coincided axes of two identical and symmetrical conics will be perspective from the symmetry line regardless of the number and direction of pencils from that point.
Alternative of theorem 1: Alternative of theorem 1 can be stated as follows:
The points of intersections of the corresponding sides of two polygons, each one inscribed in one of the identical and symmetrical conics, obtaining from the lines joining the intersections of pencils from a common point, which is the intersection of the line of symmetry and the line passing through the coincided axes of the two conics, and the conics lie on a straight line which is the line of symmetry.
Theorem 2 (Dual of theorem 1)
To demonstrate that the intersections of tangents at the intersections of the same couple of pencils from the common point of intersection of the symmetrical line and the line passing through the coincide axes of two identical and symmetrical conics will be perspective from that point regardless of the number and direction of pencils.
Alternative of theorem 2 : Alternative of theorem 2 can be stated as follows:
The lines joining each pair of the corresponding vertexes of two polygons, each one circumscribed about one of the identical and symmetrical conics of which their axis are coincide, obtaining from the tangents at the intersections of pencils from a common point, which is the intersection of the line of symmetry and the line passing through the axis of the two conics, and the conics, pass through a point.
Conclusions
Since we are free to draw any number of pencils from A in any direction as desired, therefore it is obvious that these theorems reveal the methods of constructing perspective polygons.
For example, to construct a perspective polygon of an existing polygon inscribed in a conic, just draw another identical and symmetrical conic and draw the line passing through the coincided axes of the two conics and the line passing through the intersection of the conics to get an intersection point. From this point draw pencils of the lines passing through each and every vertex of the original polygon. Then join the intersections of each pencil and the other conics and you get the perspective polygon of the original polygon on the other conic.
A CAD software can easily prove these two theorems and facilitate constructing of the perspective polygons governed by these theorems. Mathematicians are encouraged to prove those theorems by deductive and analytical methods.
References: 1. IMAGINATION
2. Frank Ayres,Jr., Theory and Problems of PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY, Schaum’s Outline
Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1967.

The theory of colors of water in the swimming pool
1. Introduction: The color of water in the swimming pool varies from sky blue to green due to varying of refractive index with the contents of soluble calcium ion in the water. The more the soluble calcium is in the water, the more the tendency of water to be blue color. In the spectrum of light (figure 1) the green color is adjacent to blue color. Since water is losing calcium ion gradually by carbon dioxide from the air dissolved into the water, thus, the color of water will be gradually changed from sky blue to green when the water is exposed to the air or before and after the rain when the atmospheric pressure was increased, making more carbon dioxide dissolved into the water. The pH and alkalinity of water drops down and the water becomes more opaque due to calcium bicarbonate salt suspended in the water. When the water which turns green was left untreated for about two weeks its color will be changed to cloudy pale green because of calcium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate salts suspended in the water which is misunderstood as algae.
Violet: Indigo: Blue: Green:Yellow:Orange: Red
Figure 1. In the spectrum of light, blue and green are adjacent. The color of water in the swimming pool will gradually change from blue to green when the soluble calcium ion in the water drops down because of carbon dioxide in the air dissolved into the water.
Another cause of changing of color of water in the swimming pool from sky blue to green relates to the iron ions and rust in the make up water. Iron ions and rust in the make up water have yellow color by nature. Thus, when the make up water containing iron ions or rust is added into the swimming pool water to replace overflow and evaporation, the sky blue color of water in the swimming pool will be changed to green (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Sky blue water when contaminated with Yellow iron ions or rust gets Green water.
Iron ions in the make up water have two forms. The first is ferrous ion (Fe+2) which is colorless and the second is ferric ion (Fe+3) which is yellow color. The ferrous ion when contacted with oxygen or residual chlorine in the swimming pool water becomes ferric ion. Thus, even with colorless make up water, the color of swimming pool water may be eventually turns green because of ferrous ion in the make up water will gradually becomes ferric ion when contact with oxygen and residual chlorine. Ferrous ion comes mainly from deep well water which is usually mixed with tap water during dry seasons when the supply of surface water is short, while ferric ion comes mainly from surface water or rust in the pipe lines, pumps or storage tanks. The concentration of iron ions in the water which makes the sky blue color of water turned green is very small, i.e., in the parts per billion (ppb) order of magnitude which is out of the range of common test kits. However, we can check if the tap water contains iron ions or rust or not by investigating the white color bathtub filled with tap water or concrete storage tank laid with white color tiles and the inside of storage tank of the toilet. If the color of water in the bathtub or storage tank is pale green then the tap water surely contains iron ions or rust. If it is sky blue then the tap water has no iron ions at that investigation period. The storage tank of toilet is too small to observer the color of water inside it. But it keeps the history of tap water over a long period. So, if the color of the wetted part inside the storage tank is brown with soil on the surface then the tap water surely contains iron ions or rust over a long period. Meaning, although there are no iron ions or rust in the tap water during investigation period, they existed in other periods of the year.
Although very small amount of ferric salts in the water may not cause the color of water to turn green as seen from the side of the pool explicitly, it makes a big difference to some divers. Some divers noticed that water in some swimming pool is so clear that when they dived on one side of the pool and looked through the water to the far side of the pool they could see the tiles on that far side clearly while in other swimming pools they could not. As a matter of fact, most of the above mentioned calcium salts and ferric salts once occurred cannot be filtered out by sand filters or diatomaceous earth filters used in the swimming pools. In section 3, we will talk about how to make such “super-clear” water for swimming pool.
2. Method of Treatment
Tap water filled into an empty swimming pool also needs treatment because the color of water will be pale green or cloudy pale blue and unclear. The same method of treatment is used to adjust the existing ordinary swimming pool water which is not blue, or green and unclear to become blue crystal clear.
2.1) Preparation of chemicals, test kits, tools and equipment
(For about 600 cubic meters swimming pool or 12.5 x 25 m2 x 2 m depth)
(1) Chemicals :
- 100 kg. of calcium hydroxide powder or lime (used in construction)
- 60 kg. of 33 % hydrochloric acid (conc.)
- 500 ml. of concentrated ammonia water as first aid in case of breathing
hydrochloric acid fume.
(2) Test kits :
- Ordinary swimming pool test kits for pH and chlorine (only pH is used)
(3) Tools :
- 2 units of 20 liters plastic bins
- Acid protection mask with goggle inclusive
- Plastic gloves
- Vacuum head roller, long stick and flexible tube ordinarily used in cleaning the
floor of swimming pool
(4) Equipment :
- Fill in make-up water until the pool is full and stop
- Backwash the filters
- Stop pumps
- Manipulate valves in such a way that no water is drained away from the pool
- Check underwater lamps. Turn them on in case of working at night.
Procedure of Treatment
Blend 5 kg. of lime powder with 10 liters of tap water in a 20 liters bin. Stir it with hand which wears plastic glove.
Pour the milky slurry part of liquid from the bin into the swimming pool, leaving the solid part precipitated at the bottom of the bin. Throw the precipitate away in another empty bin. The slurry should be poured throughout the pool evenly not at one spot.
Repeat step 2 until 50 kilograms of lime powder is used. Wait for 15 minutes.
Check pH of water. If the pH is lower than 10.5 then repeat step 2 again and again and check pH from time to time. When the pH is over 10.5 stop.
Turn off the underwater lamps and let the water still for at least 6 hours.
Return and put on the acid protection mask. Pour 20 kg. of 33% hydrochloric acid gradually into the pool evenly around the pool, not at one spot. Leaving for 10 minutes, no need to stir.
Check pH of water. The pH of water will drop down. If the pH is over to 8.5, then pour 10 kg. of 33% hydrochloric acid into the pool gradually, wait 5 minutes. The hydrochloric acid should be poured throughout the pool evenly not at one spot.
Repeat step 7 until the pH of water is 8.5 then stop. It is crucial not to bring the pH down below 8.5 or else the procedure must be repeated.
Manipulate valves in such a way that the wastewater from the vacuum head roller will be drained away without passing through the filters. Start pump(s).
Clean the floor of the pool with vacuum until finish.
Manipulate valves in such a way that the make up water is filled in while the
pumps are running to circulate water through the filters.
After a few rounds of circulation time (1 round of circulation time = volume of water in the pool / pumping capacity), the water will be blue crystal clear.
Notes: a) Handle 33% hydrochloric acid with extreme care. Do not stand down stream
to the wind with respect to the 33% hydrochloric acid or breath hydrochloric
acid fume. In case of breathing a lot of hydrochloric acid fume, use cotton
wool or cloth moistened with ammonia water to inhale slowly.
Theoretically 98% sulphuric acid should not be used in place of 33%
hydrochloric acid because 98% sulphuric acid has high density. Once pour
into the pool it will sink down to the bottom of the pool and will destroy the
pool floor. Besides, the calcium sulphate salt resulting from the reactions with
lime does not dissolve in water in that salinity range. Thus, theoretically, in
fresh water sulphuric acid could not make the color of water blue but cloudy.
The pool is already in service at pH of 8.5 which is the highest value of pH
allowed. We may add chlorine to the water at this moment. The pH of water
will drop down gradually when there is make up water entering into the pool
or carbon dioxide in the air is dissolved into the water. In case that pH
between 7.2 to 7.8 range is strictly applied to that pool, simply pour 5 kg of
33% hydrochloric acid into the pool (when there is no one in the pool) and
around the pool and check pH. Repeat this step carefully using 2-3 kg of 33%
hydrochloric acid until the pH of water is 7.8 and stop. You can notice that the
color of water is not as blue as at pH of 8.5
In some countries where copper sulphate (crystal) is allowed to be used in the
swimming pools to protect algae due to high pH of water in the pool, it is
recommended that 1 gram per cubic meter of copper sulphate is used and not
more than 2 grams per cubic meter. Using copper sulphate will make the color of water be more blue. Do not use copper sulphate to adjust the color of water in the swimming pool. Copper of more than 2 gram per cubic meter is reported to be dangerous to our health.
3. Making Super-Clear Water for Swimming Pool
3.1) Criteria
(1) For swimming pool with sand filters
- Remove iron ions, iron salts and rust from the swimming pool water.
(2) For swimming pool with diatomaceous filters
- Remove iron ions from the make up water.
3.2) Method : For swimming pool with sand filters
(1) Replace half of sand media in the sand filters by “Green Sand”. Green sand is used in water treatment for removal of ferrous ion from the water. Green sand mentioned here has dark violet to black color. It is as fine as sand but not as round. Green sand which has pale brown color should not be used. But if necessary, wash it well before use because it is full of dust and silt. Backwash the filters well after replacing half of each sand filter with green sand. Use the filters as usual.
Each and every day pour 1 - 2 grams of potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
into the swimming pool (when there is no one in the pool) 6 -12 hours before daily backwashing of the filters. The color of water will be pale violet because of the color of potassium permanganate and will turn to blue crystal clear again when the water has been filtered. The purpose of potassium permanganate is to regenerate the green sand inside the filters.
3.3) Method : For swimming pool with diatomaceous earth filters
Install a green sand filter or iron removal filter to the make up water supply line. Regeneration of green sand is done by means of dosing pump which injects potassium permanganate solution directly into the filter.
Remarks: 1) If a lot of potassium permanganate is dumped into the swimming pool water by accident making the color of water violet, to remedy, then pour sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) powder about 5 times as much as potassium permanganate into the swimming pool while the circulating pumps are on. Wait until the color of water turns pale yellow. Then, start the procedure in section 2 above and the water will become blue crystal clear.
2) Swimming pools which employ sand filters should used the method in item 3.3 too.
4. Sea Water Swimming Pool
The same procedure in section 2 can also be used but the quantity of calcium hydroxide or lime needed is much higher depending on total hardness of the sea water. For sea water of total hardness about 6,000 mg/l, the quantity of lime required would be about 3,000 kg for the sea water swimming pool of the size in section 2. This procedure is inevitably needed for initial treatment of all sea water pools, or otherwise precipitation will occur slowly and continuously making the water unclear and the pool floor and side walls become dirty repeatedly after cleaning because of carbon dioxide in the air reacts with minerals in the sea water forming precipitating salts which is misunderstood as microorganisms or planktons needed to be killed by disinfectants.
The Property of Similar Conics in Projective Geometry
Abstract : Similar conics are the conics of which their axis are parallel and their size and shape are proportional. Three similar conics intersect at six distinct points are demonstrated to have three lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics intersect at one point. A theorem is formed from this property of similar conics. Dual of this theorem is also true for each of the three similar conics. Theorems are demonstrated and proved by CAD software. Proofs by deductive and analytical methods are still unsolved.
Definition of Similar Conics:
Similar conics are the conics of which their axis are parallel and their size and shape are proportional.
Figure 1 and 2 are examples of three similar conics obtaining from scaling up or scaling down of an original conic while keeping their axis parallel. Both figures also show that the lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics meet at one point, O. Thus, theorem 1 is formed.
Theorem 1
Three similar conics intersect at six distinct points having three lines connecting the intersections between each couple of similar conics intersect at one point.
Duality of theorem 1 are demonstrated in figure 3, 4, 5 for the group of three similar conics so aligned in such a way that the intersection point O is within the group, and in figure 6 and 7 for the group of three similar conics so aligned in such a way that the intersection point O is outside the group.
Thus, theorem 2 is formed as follows:
Theorem 2 (Dual of theorem 1)
The six tangent lines to each conic of the group of three similar conics at the intersections of each couple of conics intersect at three distinct points which are collinear.
A CAD software can easily prove these two theorems and facilitate constructing of the similar conics by means of scale up and down command. Mathematicians are encouraged to prove those theorems by deductive and analytical methods.
References: 1. IMAGINATION
2. Frank Ayres,Jr., Theory and Problems of PROJECTIVE GEOMETRY, Schaum’s Outline
Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1967.
PROCEDURES OF PRODUCING
Methylphosphoryldifluoridethe precursor of SARIN
by Sahatchai Wanawongsawad (October 22, 2006)
Abstract : Five steps of producing Methylphosphoryldifluoride are described with adequate details to show the procedures but not for producing because some data such as weights of raw materials and operating conditions are not disclosed. The author also suggested that SARIN may be useful in medicine such as for curing post-traumatic stress disorder, help
people to forget bad experience or secret stories, by inhibiting or destroying synapses of specific nerves in certain part of the brain.
What is Methylphosphoryldifluoride? The answer can be found from several websites on the internet. Some websites give incorrect information about the production process such as only four chemicals are required to produce it. Knowledge about SARIN can also be found in several websites including how to produce it using Methylphosphoryldifluoride and IPA (Isopropyl Alcohol).
1. Raw materials required to produce Methylphosphoryldifluoride.
1) PS2 = Decaline C10H18 98%
2) PL2 = Methanol CH3OH 96.5%
3) PS1 = 3,3-Dimethyl, 2-Butanol CH3C(CH3)2CHOHCH3 98.5%
4) PH1 = Tributhylamine N(CH2CH2CH2CH3)3 98%
5) PH2 = Sodium Fluoride NaF (powder) 97.8-98.4%
6) PS3 = Sodium Sulfide Na2S (solid) 60%
7) PS8 = Thionylchloride SOCl2 99.5%
8) PS4 = Phosphorustrichloride PCl3 99.5%
9) PL3 = Chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 99%
10) PL4 = 2-Chloroethanol Cl-CH2CH2OH 99%
11) PW = Process Water H2O (Demineralizer 10 – 18 MegaOhm)
Codes of Chemicals, Mixers, and Reactors
Step No.
Codes of Chemicals
Code of Mixers
Code of Reactors
Step 1
Raw materials PS1, PS2, PL2, and PH1
Intermediate PM1
M-22
(SS 316L)
R-22 and R-23
(SS 316L)
Step 2
Raw material PH2
Intermediate PM2

None
R-62
(Glass Lined)
Step 3
Raw materials PS4, PS8
Intermediate PM3
M-27
(Glass Lined)
R-26
(Glass Lined)
Step 4
Raw materials PS3, PL3, PW
Intermediate PM4
M-30
(Glass Lined)
R-30
(Glass Lined)
Step 5
Raw material PL4
Intermediates PM3, PM4

None
R-33
(Glass Lined)
Notes: 1) There are various vessels to receive distillate, intermediate and wastewater too.
All mixers are equipped with agitator, temperature probe, pressure indicator, valves, nozzles, and a dosing pump at the bottom (except for M-27).
All reactors are equipped with agitator, packed column, temperature probe, pressure indicator, valves nozzles, and a drain valve.
An evaporator D-62 is needed in Step 1.The evaporator D-62 needs no agitator. New technology uses thin film evaporator in place of common evaporator. Still a common evaporator is required as back up.
5) The total volume of mixers and reactors for the production of 944 liters of
Methylphosphoryldifluoride in industrial scale are as follows:
M-22 = 2500 lt., M-27 = 630 lt., M-30 = 630 lt., M-31 = 630 lt, R-22 =
20600 lt, R-23 = 12250 lt, R-62 = 855 lt., R- 26 = 2040 lt.,R-30 = 2040 lt.,
R-33 = 2040 lt.
3. STEP 5 The last stepThe last step of producing Methylphosphoryldifluoride is to mix and boil three components together in R-33 at constant temperature while distillation. One is a raw material PL4, the others are intermediate chemicals produced in step 3 (PM3) and step 4 (PM4).
Reaction Summary PL4 + PM3 + PM4 = Methylphosphoryldifluoride.
4. STEP4 Procedure of producing PM4
Reaction Summary PM3 + PL3 + PS3 + PW = PM4 (after distillation)
5. STEP3 Procedure of producing PM3

Reaction Summary PM2 + PS4 + PS8 = PM3 (after distillation)
6. STEP2 Procedure of producing PM2
Reaction Summary PM1 + PH2 = PM2 (after distillation)
7. STEP1 Procedure of producing PM1
Reaction Summary PS1 + PL2 + PS2 + PH1 = PM1 (after distillation)
Remarks: Methylphosphoryldifluoride + Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) CH3CHOHCH3 99.7%
= SARIN.
Procedure of producing SARIN: By slowly gravitational dosage of IPA into
Methylphosphoryldifluoride in R-33 while stirring in such a way that there is
reflux at all time without heating, the ratio of Methylphosphoryldifluoride and
IPA by volume is 5.64 : 10,waste gases are delivered to waste gas scrubber. After
finished dosage of IPA then cool down the reactor to T1 degree Celcius and
reduce the pressure of the reactor to P Milli bar to distill out waste gases for a
while and heat up the reactor slowly to T2 to distill out SARIN as the product.
Applications Hint: SARIN may be useful in curing post-traumatic stress disorder by inhibiting or destroying synapses of specific nerves in certain part of the brain which control the memory which causes the syndrome. In addition, if we know which part of the brain controls which specific memory, sad experience or secret stories, then SARIN can be used to erase those sad experience or secret stories from the brain.
PROCEDURES OF PRODUCING Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide, distilled 96% Mustard Gas
(October 22, 2006)
Abstract : Four steps of producing Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% are described with adequate details to show the procedure but not for producing because some data such as weights of raw materials and operating conditions are not disclosed. The objective of this article is to fill up some information about the procedure of producing this chemical which can hardly be found on other websites.
Information about Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide can be found on various websites. But no step by step procedures of producing have been described by any article on the websites so far. Thus, this article is to fill up some information about the procedures of producing this chemical which can hardly be found on other websites.
1. Raw materials required to produce Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide
1) PS6 = Dichloromethane CH2Cl2 99%
2) PL5 = Ethanol C2H5OH 96.5%
3) PS3 = Sodium Sulfide Na2S (solid) 60%
4) PS8 = Thionylchloride SOCl2 99.5%
5) PA1 = Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 (conc.) 98%
6) PW = Process Water H2O (Demineralizer 10 MegaOhm)
Codes of Chemicals, Mixers, and Reactors
Step No.
Codes of Chemicals
Code of Mixer
and Centrifuge
Code of Reactors
Step 1
Raw materials PA1, PW
Intermediate PM5
Mixer M-40
(Glass Lined)

None
Step 2
Raw materials PL5, PS3, PS6
Intermediate PM5, PM6

None
R-40
(SS 316 L)
Step 3
Raw material PL5
Intermediate PM6
Centrifuge Z-41
(SS 316 L)

None
Step 4
Raw material PS8
Intermediate PM6


R-42
(Glass Lined)
3. STEP 1 Preparation of PM5
Reaction Summary
PA1 + PW = PM5
4. STEP 2 Preparation of mixture in R-40 and perform chemical reactions
Reaction Summary
PL5 + PS3 + PS6 + PM5 = PM6 (in suspension)
5. STEP 3 Centrifugation
6. STEP 4 Making distilled Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96%
Reaction Summary
PS8 + PM6 = Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96% (after distillation)
Property and method of identification of Biz-(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide 96%
No color to yellow, M.P. = 14.4 C, B.P. 218 C (1ATM) , Refractive Index at 20 C 1.5218,
Cp,liq = 170 J/Mole K, Cp,gas = 150 J/Mole K, Vis. at 20C = 0.4 MPa sec, S.G. (20C) 1.7
Soluable in water = 0.8 gm/lt of water, Heat evap. = He = 59.8 kJ/Mole
Gas Chromatograph (column) OV1, 50m. (Capillary Column),
Method of Identification = NMR-spectrum 2 Trifplates by diff. Shifts solvent acetone (D6)
Questions and Answers from my believing and experience.

1) Question: Who is the greatest god of all gods?
Answer: Siva is the greatest god of all gods in the Universe.
2) Question: Who is the greatest god on the planets?
Answer: Brahma who got order from Siva to create living environment on the planets for Angels and
Asuras. Earth was not intentionally created for human. Human beings have just been evolving
from primates. The direction of human’s evolution is to improve sensory perception for the 5thD.
3) Question: Where are the Angels and Asuras on earth?
Answer: Everywhere in higher dimensions than the 4D (3 space + 1 time) of which 5 physical senses of
human beings and creatures (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and touch) can not be perceptible.
4) Question: Why does Brahma who is the son of Siva and Vishnu look like an old man while Siva and Vishnu
look young?
Answer: Brahma had to work in the time field on the planets while Siva and Vishnu had never. But, the
split souls of Siva and Vishnu which came to earth get older and older with time.
5) Question: Why does Brahma have 4 faces?
Answer: The 4 faces of Brahma are able to be rotated, meaning, he has no senses of front nor back, and
left nor right. This is a metaphor to teach everyone about how to live together peacefully by
means of sincerity (no front nor back) and impartiality (no left nor right).
6) Question: Why did Prince Sitthatta (Buddha) have a tremendous effort to find ways how to cease
reincarnation of individual by going to nirvana?
Answer: Because he was shocked when he found that life is not eternal as his father King Sutthotana) had
been deceiving him by not allowing him to see birth, aging, illness and death for 26 years. This
inspired him by a great deal to find ways how to cease reincarnation. And he found one way.
7) Question: Why do Buddhist monks eat meat while they are teaching people that killing is a sin?
Answer: The prime duty of the Buddhist monks is to hold 227 commandments so that they will be able to
deliver food donated by putting food in the bowls of Buddhist monks in the morning to the world
of the dead after eating the food. As the soul of the dead needs to eat and they eat meat as do
their relatives who donated food which contains meat for the Buddhist monks in the morning.
Such food can also be delivered to wait for the donators after dead if the donators did not intend
to send it to their relatives in the world of the dead. The point is that in order that the food can be
delivered to the world of the dead, the Buddhist monks must eat it. Thus, in the community
where people eat meat, the Buddhist monks must eat meat too. But if people in the community
are vegetarian then the Buddhist monks shall eat vegetarian food. The excessive food which is
given by the monks to poor people shall not be delivered to the world of the dead but became
a merit to the donators only. Buddhist monks shall not receive too much food more than they can
eat (as stipulated by Buddha), and people should not donate food to the Buddhist monks who
have already got too much food either. Buddha stipulated that Buddhist monks must eat all
donated food in their bowl in 1-2 meals before noon. He prohibited to eat some meats e.g. tiger’s.
8) Question: Will cloning of human make the same original person?
Answer: No, it won’t. Cloning of human body did not clone his/her soul either.
9) Question: What is Soul?
Answer: A soul is an individual life form in higher dimensions than the 4D (3 space +1time) of which the
sensory perceptions of humans and creatures can not be perceptible.
10) Question: Do plants have soul?
Answer: Yes, they have but different from creatures and of lower ranks.
11) Question: Does microorganism have soul?
Answer: Yes, in simple form. The souls (not body) of virus/bacteria/diseases are the results of Mantras of
Angels, Asuras, Bodhisattvas (Guang-Im for HIV), Gods, Goddesses, Nakas (for shingles), etc.
12) Question: Do the holy-statues have soul in them permanently?
Answer: No. But a soul can superimpose onto a holy-statue from time to time. A common to medium rank
soul can superimpose onto a person and controls his/her body to be the medium. High rank souls
do it by grasping at the medium’s brain-stem as they are too powerful for the medium to bear.
13) Question: Can soul die?
Answer: Yes. When soul died by being killed in the fight with other soul or by focusing on a very high
rank soul, that person (in 4D) will die for real within 3 months. Soul can get old when it is in time
field and can be weak or ill. A soul can be split to take one part of split outstanding Karma of that
soul when his/her Karma is too much for it to take liability in reasonable times of reincarnation.
Low rank souls are opaque while higher rank souls are more transparent. Souls have colors too.
14) Question: What is life?
Answer: Life is a physical body in 4D combined with a soul (life form in higher dimensions than 4D).
Thus, a life form is a soul free from body or a soul situated in a body. (Souls are in 5D or more.)
15) Question: How many dimensions does the Universe have?
Answer: Eleven. The higher the dimension, the higher the rank of soul (the original one) is situated there.
16) Question: How can we contact souls in the 5D or more
Answer: By meditation or by the 6th sense (mind). An experienced person can move his/her soul to other
places with one end of the soul string still be connected to the crown of his/her head. The longer
the distance the more difficult for that person to breathe. Overseas are considered a short distance.
7) Question: Does projective geometry end at Pascal’s theorem (1640 A.D.) and Brianchon’s Theorem (1810
A.D.) on hexagon inscribed or circumscribed a conic section?
Answer: No, it does not. See my articles No. 1 and 3 on this website where two and three conic sections
and polygons play their roles in projective geometry.
8) Question: Can we explain the behavior of non-equilibrium systems by existing math?
Answer: No. Calculus of non-equilibrium systems is required together with some physical laws which
govern basic behaviors of non-equilibrium systems. Statistical physics will be revolutionized.
My articles on this shall be posted here on this website. (But not soon.)
VDO CLIP, CLIP VDO Video Clip, Clip Video
This is for you Siriporn P.
Name of Song: You can’t keep me from loving you.
Melody from: Midnight in Moscow.
Singer: Petula Clark

You can’t keep the stars from the cloudless night.
You can’t keep the wave from the shore.
You can’t keep the sky free from birds that fly.
You can’t keep me from loving you.

As the grass will grow, darling this I know.
You can’t keep me from loving you.

Try to stop the trembling of the autumn leaves.
Try to turn the rose petal blue.
Darling can’t you see something have to be.
You can’t keep me from loving you.

You can’t keep the snow from the mountain top.
You can’t keep the moon from the sea.
You can’t keep the trees from the evening breeze.
You can’t keep me from loving you.

Though, something never changed, though it isn’t strange.
You can’t keep me from loving you.

This Website is hosted by his beloved son, Kampan. (homepage: www.kampan.org)

Rest In Peace

Sahatchai has passed away on 26. january 2008